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In —63, they struggled to finish on seventh place to secure a spot in the newly formed Regionalliga West , which was situated directly below the new Bundesliga.

Arminia finished their first seasons in mid-table, but became one of the better Regionalliga teams later on. A year later, forward Ernst Kuster joined the team and went on to become the club's all-time leading goal scorer.

A 0—1 loss to Wuppertaler SV on the last day of the —67 season held Arminia to enter the Bundesliga promotion play-offs.

The team had a poor start in their first Bundesliga season , but results improved and they eventually finished 14th. However, near the end of the season it was discovered that Arminia had engaged in match-fixing; three of the ten Bundesliga games which were proven to have been manipulated through bribery directly involved Arminia.

Two players at the club were banned from football for life Waldemar Slomiany and Jürgen Neumann. Arminia was allowed to play the —72 season in the Bundesliga, but were automatically relegated to the Regionalliga as a penalty.

Arminia struggled in the following seasons, but were good enough to be appointed to the newly formed 2. Bundesliga in After two seasons in mid-table, Arminia had good chances of returning to the Bundesliga in —77 but they finished only as runner-up behind FC St.

They faced TSV München in a two-legged play-off whose winner would win promotion to the top flight. Arminia won the first match at home 4—0, but lost the second leg in Munich 0—4.

A third match had to be played in Frankfurt which Munich won 2—0. The team was shocked but bounced back to win promotion in — Arminia started well and on 10 March , they won 4—0 at Bayern Munich.

The club managed to keep the team together and bounced back after a record-breaking year. They won 30 of 38 matches, scored goals, had a 28 match unbeaten streak and set a league record by beating Arminia Hannover 11—0.

Arminia struggled to avoid relegation and managed to stay in the Bundesliga for five years, including two finishes in eighth place in —83 and —84 seasons.

In —85 , Arminia finished third from the bottom and lost the relegation play-offs against 1. FC Saarbrücken. The team failed to gain promotion and in the fall of , Arminia had debts of 4.

The result was a last place finish in — Ernst Middendorp became the new manager and assembled a young team for the new season. Arminia led the way in the Oberliga Westfalen but finished only second in — Four dismal years followed in which the team started well but were unable to compete for the championship.

In the spring of , Arminia created a relatively large media buzz by signing veteran Bundesliga players like Thomas von Heesen , Armin Eck and Fritz Walter.

Arminia signed Stefan Kuntz for the —97 Bundesliga season , their first in 11 years and finished on 14th position.

They bounced back by winning the —99 season. Bruno Labbadia became the league's top scorer with 28 goals. The club suffered from financial problems and entered the — season with a smaller budget.

Relegation followed again after the team became the third team in Bundesliga history to lose ten matches in a row.

Arminia struggled against relegation again the next season and avoided to drop into the Regionalliga in close season.

Their fortunes turned around and Arminia won their sixth promotion to the Bundesliga in —02 with Artur Wichniarek scoring 18 goals.

Arminia were almost saved the next year but a slump with only two points out of the last six matches sealed relegation again. The team bounced back again in —04 and were able to stay in the top flight until In —05, Patrick Owomoyela became Arminia's new record national player.

In both seasons, Arminia also kept away from the relegation zone virtually the whole time except the season's beginnings.

In , many Arminia fans were sad to see the old East Stand being torn down then the last non-seater stand in the Bundesliga not being placed behind one of the goals [19] and also further marketing attempts alienated the fans from the Club's Management Board.

From onwards, managerial sackings became more and more common and avoiding relegation became more and more difficult.

Arminia played their fifth consecutive Bundesliga season in — They finished last and were relegated to the 2. However, after finishing seventh in the —10 season, their next season was fraught with managerial sackings and financial difficulties.

After a poor season, picking up only 16 points and winning only four games, Bielefeld were relegated to the 3. After a poor start, they ended the —12 season in 13th place.

Bundesliga, but lost in the second round in a close match against Bayer 04 Leverkusen , a Europa League participant.

On 11 May , Bielefeld beat VfL Osnabrück 1—0 to guarantee a top two finish and promotion back to the 2. Bundesliga for the —14 season. That season began quite hopeful: Arminia qualified for the second round of the DFB-Pokal again and at the 8th matchday they had even climbed up to the 3rd rank in the league table.

But after a disastrous autumn and a mediocre winter Arminia fell down onto the 17th rank and the popular coach Stefan Krämer had to leave. His successor Norbert Meier at first had only little more success: Arminia finished 16th in the 2.

Bundesliga, and lost a playoff against SV Darmstadt 98 on away goals after a nd minute extra time goal gave Darmstadt the victory.

Arminia had to go back into the 3. But the next season could wipe out the bitterness of that disaster: In the —15 DFB-Pokal , as a 3. They also were the top team in the 3.

Liga after a bad beginning with only four points from the first four matches for the most parts of the season.

Liga as well. Even the qualification for the 2. Bundesliga seemed to become doubtful, but was secured after a 2—2 draw against SSV Jahn Regensburg , the last team in the league table, at the 37th matchday.

Liberated from the pressure of a possible non-qualification, they also won the 3. Liga with a final 1—0 victory at the last matchday.

A stable season with a defeat in the first round of the DFB-Pokal , a lot of draws in the league especially in the beginning: eight out of ten matches; in the end Arminia reached a record of 18 and only very few goals scored at home only eight until the 30th matchday followed so that the 4—2 over Greuther Fürth at the 31st matchday which secured Arminias staying up was only Arminias third win at home.

That season's highlights probably were the draws against all three top teams away. In the league table Arminia never went deeper than rank 14 and finished 12th.

A difficult —17 season with two manager sackings followed. Arminia found themselves among the lowest four teams in the league table from the fourth matchday onwards, mostly on the 16th or 17th rank.

They avoided relegation as they finished in 15th after a 6—0 win over promotion candidate Eintracht Braunschweig and a 1—1 against Dynamo Dresden at the last two matchdays.

The —18 season turned out easier. Having gathered 10 points out of the first four matches, Arminia hardly ever left the upper half of the league table only at the 19th matchday: rank 10 and finished on the 4th rank — though in that season's very close league table this never meant all too much.

For example, Arminias 6th rank on the 28th matchday only meant 5 points distance to rank In the end, the 4th rank meant 8 points distance to both the 3rd and the 16th rank.

In that season, Arminia also made a big step in lowering its debts through an alliance of sponsors. In November , Arminia was practically free of debt but had to sell its stadium.

Thus, the popular coach Jeff Saibene was replaced by Uwe Neuhaus who managed to bring back Arminia back into the league table's midfield within four matchdays and onto the 7th rank at the last matchday.

During the —20 season , the club played its best season in recent years, resulting in a promotion to the Bundesliga in June Arminia took the club colours blue, white and black upon their foundation in The colours haven't changed though the current club colours are black, white and blue.

Despite this, Arminia played their first match in an orange kit. Arminia's home kit was blue for most of the time while their shorts and socks were white.

The team that won promotion to the Bundesliga in wore a blue shirt with thick white stripes. The current home kit is blue with a white hoop, black shorts and white socks.

The away kit was mostly all white while green shirts were worn in the s. Currently the away kit consists of a white shirt, white shorts and black socks.

The Byzantine rule was short lived, as in the Seljuk Empire defeated the Byzantines and conquered Armenia at the Battle of Manzikert , establishing the Seljuk Empire.

Cilicia was a strong ally of the European Crusaders , and saw itself as a bastion of Christendom in the East. Cilicia's significance in Armenian history and statehood is also attested by the transfer of the seat of the Catholicos of the Armenian Apostolic Church, the spiritual leader of the Armenian people, to the region.

The Seljuk Empire soon started to collapse. In the early 12th century, Armenian princes of the Zakarid family drove out the Seljuk Turks and established a semi-independent principality in northern and eastern Armenia known as Zakarid Armenia , which lasted under the patronage of the Georgian Kingdom.

After incessant invasions, each bringing destruction to the country, with time Armenia became weakened. From the mid 16th century with the Peace of Amasya , and decisively from the first half of the 17th century with the Treaty of Zuhab until the first half of the 19th century, [72] Eastern Armenia was ruled by the successive Safavid, Afsharid and Qajar empires, while Western Armenia remained under Ottoman rule.

From , Abbas I of Iran implemented a " scorched earth " policy in the region to protect his north-western frontier against any invading Ottoman forces, a policy that involved a forced resettlement of masses of Armenians outside of their homelands.

While Western Armenia still remained under Ottoman rule, the Armenians were granted considerable autonomy within their own enclaves and lived in relative harmony with other groups in the empire including the ruling Turks.

However, as Christians under a strict Muslim social structure , Armenians faced pervasive discrimination.

When they began pushing for more rights within the Ottoman Empire, Sultan Abdul Hamid II , in response, organised state-sponsored massacres against the Armenians between and , resulting in an estimated death toll of 80, to , people.

The Hamidian massacres , as they came to be known, gave Hamid international infamy as the "Red Sultan" or "Bloody Sultan". During the s, the Armenian Revolutionary Federation , commonly known as Dashnaktsutyun , became active within the Ottoman Empire with the aim of unifying the various small groups in the empire that were advocating for reform and defending Armenian villages from massacres that were widespread in some of the Armenian-populated areas of the empire.

Dashnaktsutyun members also formed Armenian fedayi groups that defended Armenian civilians through armed resistance. The Dashnaks also worked for the wider goal of creating a "free, independent and unified" Armenia, although they sometimes set aside this goal in favour of a more realistic approach, such as advocating autonomy.

In April , the Adana massacre occurred in the Adana Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire resulting in the deaths of as many as 20,—30, Armenians.

The Armenians living in the empire hoped that the Committee of Union and Progress would change their second-class status.

The Armenian reform package was presented as a solution by appointing an inspector general over Armenian issues. The new government in Istanbul began to look on the Armenians with distrust and suspicion, because the Imperial Russian Army contained a contingent of Armenian volunteers.

On 24 April , Armenian intellectuals were arrested by Ottoman authorities and, with the Tehcir Law 29 May , eventually a large proportion of Armenians living in Anatolia perished in what has become known as the Armenian Genocide.

The genocide was implemented in two phases: the wholesale killing of the able-bodied male population through massacre and subjection of army conscripts to forced labour, followed by the deportation of women, children, the elderly and infirm on death marches leading to the Syrian desert.

Driven forward by military escorts, the deportees were deprived of food and water and subjected to periodic robbery, rape, and massacre.

The events of to are regarded by Armenians and the vast majority of Western historians to have been state-sponsored mass killings, or genocide.

Turkish authorities deny the genocide took place to this day. The Armenian Genocide is acknowledged to have been one of the first modern genocides.

Toynbee , an estimated , Armenians died during deportation from — This figure, however, accounts for solely the first year of the Genocide and does not take into account those who died or were killed after the report was compiled on 24 May This federation, however, lasted from only February to May , when all three parties decided to dissolve it.

As a result, the Dashnaktsutyun government of Eastern Armenia declared its independence on 28 May as the First Republic of Armenia under the leadership of Aram Manukian.

The First Republic's short-lived independence was fraught with war, territorial disputes , and a mass influx of refugees from Ottoman Armenia, bringing with them disease and starvation.

The Entente Powers , appalled by the actions of the Ottoman government, sought to help the newly founded Armenian state through relief funds and other forms of support.

At the end of the war, the victorious powers sought to divide up the Ottoman Empire. In addition, just days prior, on 5 August , Mihran Damadian of the Armenian National Union, the de facto Armenian administration in Cilicia, declared the independence of Cilicia as an Armenian autonomous republic under French protectorate.

There was even consideration of making Armenia a mandate under the protection of the United States. The treaty, however, was rejected by the Turkish National Movement , and never came into effect.

The movement used the treaty as the occasion to declare itself the rightful government of Turkey , replacing the monarchy based in Istanbul with a republic based in Ankara.

In , Turkish nationalist forces invaded the fledgling Armenian republic from the east. The violent conflict finally concluded with the Treaty of Alexandropol on 2 December By 4 December, Ordzhonikidze's forces entered Yerevan and the short-lived Armenian republic collapsed.

After the fall of the republic, the February Uprising soon took place in , and led to the establishment of the Republic of Mountainous Armenia by Armenian forces under command of Garegin Nzhdeh on 26 April, which fought off both Soviet and Turkish intrusions in the Zangezur region of southern Armenia.

After Soviet agreements to include the Syunik Province in Armenia's borders, the rebellion ended and the Red Army took control of the region on 13 July.

Armenians enjoyed a period of relative stability under Soviet rule. They received medicine, food, and other provisions from Moscow, and communist rule proved to be a soothing balm in contrast to the turbulent final years of the Ottoman Empire.

The situation was difficult for the church, which struggled under Soviet rule. After the death of Vladimir Lenin , Joseph Stalin took the reins of power and began an era of renewed fear and terror for Armenians.

Armenia was not the scene of any battles in World War II. An estimated , Armenians nearly a third of the population served in the Red Army during the war, and , died.

Fears decreased when Stalin died in and Nikita Khrushchev emerged as the Soviet Union's new leader. Soon, life in Soviet Armenia began to see rapid improvement.

The church, which suffered greatly under Stalin, was revived when Catholicos Vazgen I assumed the duties of his office in In , a memorial to the victims of the Armenian Genocide was built at the Tsitsernakaberd hill above the Hrazdan gorge in Yerevan.

This occurred after mass demonstrations took place on the tragic event's fiftieth anniversary in During the Gorbachev era of the s, with the reforms of Glasnost and Perestroika , Armenians began to demand better environmental care for their country, opposing the pollution that Soviet-built factories brought.

Tensions also developed between Soviet Azerbaijan and its autonomous district of Nagorno-Karabakh , a majority-Armenian region. About , Armenians lived in Azerbaijan in Peaceful protests in Yerevan supporting the Karabakh Armenians were met with anti-Armenian pogroms in the Azerbaijani city of Sumgait.

Compounding Armenia's problems was a devastating earthquake in with a moment magnitude of 7. Gorbachev's inability to alleviate any of Armenia's problems created disillusionment among the Armenians and fed a growing hunger for independence.

The violence resulted in the deaths of five Armenians killed in a shootout with the MVD at the railway station.

Witnesses there claimed that the MVD used excessive force and that they had instigated the fighting. Further firefights between Armenian militiamen and Soviet troops occurred in Sovetashen , near the capital and resulted in the deaths of over 26 people, mostly Armenians.

The pogrom of Armenians in Baku in January forced almost all of the , Armenians in the Azerbaijani capital Baku to flee to Armenia.

On 21 September , Armenia officially declared its independence after the failed August coup in Moscow. Levon Ter-Petrosyan was popularly elected the first President of the newly independent Republic of Armenia on 16 October He had risen to prominence by leading the Karabakh movement for the unification of the Armenian-populated Nagorno-Karabakh.

The initial post-Soviet years were marred by economic difficulties, which had their roots early in the Karabakh conflict when the Azerbaijani Popular Front managed to pressure the Azerbaijan SSR to instigate a railway and air blockade against Armenia.

The Karabakh war ended after a Russian-brokered cease-fire was put in place in The status of Karabakh has yet to be determined. The economies of both countries have been hurt in the absence of a complete resolution and Armenia's borders with Turkey and Azerbaijan remain closed.

By the time both Azerbaijan and Armenia had finally agreed to a ceasefire in , an estimated 30, people had been killed and over a million had been displaced.

As it enters the 21st century, Armenia faces many hardships. It has made a full switch to a market economy. One study ranks it the 41st most "economically free" nation in the world, as of [update].

Armenia maintains cordial relations with both countries. Armenia is a landlocked country in the geopolitical Transcaucasus South Caucasus region, that is located in the Southern Caucasus Mountains and their lowlands between the Black Sea and Caspian Sea , and northeast of the Armenian Highlands.

Armenia is bordered on the north by Georgia , the east by Azerbaijan ; the south by Iran ; and the southwest and west by Turkey. The terrain is mostly mountainous, with fast flowing rivers, and few forests.

Mount Ararat , which was historically part of Armenia, is the highest mountain in the region. Now located in Turkey, but clearly visible from Armenia, it is regarded by the Armenians as a symbol of their land.

Because of this, the mountain is present on the Armenian national emblem today. The climate in Armenia is markedly highland continental.

Summers are hot, dry and sunny, lasting from June to mid-September. However, the low humidity level mitigates the effect of high temperatures. Evening breezes blowing down the mountains provide a welcome refreshing and cooling effect.

Springs are short, while autumns are long. Autumns are known for their vibrant and colourful foliage. Winter sports enthusiasts enjoy skiing down the hills of Tsakhkadzor , located thirty minutes outside Yerevan.

Out of sub-subindices contributing to Environmental Health subindex ranking on Air Quality to which population is exposed is particularly unsatisfying.

Waste management in Armenia is underdeveloped, as no waste sorting or recycling takes place at Armenia's 60 landfills.

A waste processing plant is scheduled for construction near Hrazdan city, which will allow for closure of 10 waste dumps. Despite the availability of abundant renewable energy sources in Armenia especially hydroelectric and wind power and calls from EU officials to shut down the nuclear power plant at Metsamor , [] the Armenian Government is exploring the possibilities of installing new small modular nuclear reactors.

Armenian Ministry of Nature Protection introduced taxes for air and water pollution and solid-waste disposal, whose revenues are used for environmental protection activities.

Armenia is a representative parliamentary democratic republic. The Armenian constitution adhered to the model of a semi-presidential republic until April According to the current Constitution of Armenia , the President is the head of state holding largely representational functions, while the Prime Minister is the head of government and exercises executive power.

Legislative power is vested in the Azgayin Zhoghov or National Assembly , which is a unicameral parliament. Fragile states index since its first report in until most recent in consistently ranked Armenia better than all its neighboring countries with one exception in Armenia has universal suffrage above the age of eighteen.

Armenia became a member of the United Nations on 2 March , and is a signatory to a number of its organizations and other international agreements.

Armenia has a difficult relation with neighbouring countries Azerbaijan and Turkey. Tensions were running high between Armenians and Azerbaijanis during the final years of the Soviet Union.

The Nagorno-Karabakh War dominated the region's politics throughout the s. In addition, a permanent solution for the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict has not been reached despite the mediation provided by organizations such as the OSCE.

Turkey also has a long history of poor relations with Armenia over its refusal to acknowledge the Armenian Genocide , even though it was one of the first countries to recognize the Republic of Armenia the 3rd republic after its independence from the USSR in Despite this, for most of the 20th century and early 21st century, relations remain tense and there are no formal diplomatic relations between the two countries due to Turkey's refusal to establish them for numerous reasons.

During the Nagorno-Karabakh War, and citing it as the reason, Turkey closed its border with Armenia in It has not lifted its blockade despite pressure from the powerful Turkish business lobby interested in Armenian markets.

On 10 October , Armenia and Turkey signed protocols on the normalisation of relations, which set a timetable for restoring diplomatic ties and reopening their joint border.

In Armenia, before sending the protocols to the parliament, it was sent to the Constitutional Court to have their constitutionality to be approved.

The Constitutional Court made references to the preamble of the protocols underlying three main issues. By doing so, the Constitutional Court rejected one of the main premises of the protocols, i.

Despite this, the process stopped, as Turkey continuously added more preconditions to its ratification and also "delayed it beyond any reasonable time-period".

Due to its position between two unfriendly neighbours, Armenia has close security ties with Russia. At the request of the Armenian government, Russia maintains a military base in the city of Gyumri located in Northwestern Armenia [] as a deterrent against Turkey.

It maintains good relations with the United States especially through its Armenian diaspora. Because of the illicit border blockades by Azerbaijan and Turkey, Armenia continues to maintain solid relations with its southern neighbour Iran especially in the economic sector.

Economic projects are being developed between the two nations, including a gas pipeline going from Iran to Armenia. Armenia is also a member of the Council of Europe, maintaining friendly relations with the European Union, especially with its member states such as France and Greece.

As a result of its historical ties to France, Armenia was selected to host the biennial Francophonie summit in A former republic of the Soviet Union , Armenia is an emerging democracy and as of [update] was negotiating with the European Union to become an associate partner.

Legally speaking, it has the right to be considered as a prospective EU member provided it meets necessary standards and criteria, although officially such a plan does not exist in Brussels.

Among other goals, it aims at improving investment climate. Human rights in Armenia tend to be better than those in most former Soviet republics and have drawn closer to acceptable standards, especially economically.

Armenia scored 4. Although still classified as " hybrid regime ", Armenia recorded the strongest improvement among European countries [] and reached its ever-best score since calculation began in Armenia is classified as "partly free" in the report with data from by Freedom House , which gives it a score of 51 out of , [] which is 6 points ahead of the previous estimate.

Armenia has recorded an unprecedented progress in the World Press Freedom Index published by Reporters Without Borders , improving its position by 19 points and ranking 61st on the list.

The publication also confirms the absence of cases of killed journalists, citizen journalists or media assistants. Armenia ranked 29th for economic freedom and 76th for personal freedom among countries in the Human Freedom Index published by the Cato Institute.

These classifications may improve when data from , including the period of the velvet revolution and thereafter, is analyzed.

The Armenian military was formed after the collapse of the Soviet Union in and with the establishment of the Ministry of Defence in The Ministry of Defence is in charge of political leadership, headed by Davit Tonoyan , while military command remains in the hands of the general staff, headed by the Chief of Staff , who is Lieutenant-General Onik Gasparyan.

Active forces now number about 81, soldiers, with an additional reserve of 32, troops. Armenian border guards are in charge of patrolling the country's borders with Georgia and Azerbaijan , while Russian troops continue to monitor its borders with Iran and Turkey.

In the case of an attack, Armenia is able to mobilize every able-bodied man between the age of 15 and 59, with military preparedness.

The Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe , which establishes comprehensive limits on key categories of military equipment, was ratified by the Armenian parliament in July In March , Armenia signed the multilateral Chemical Weapons Convention , which calls for the eventual elimination of chemical weapons.

The chief executive in each of the ten provinces is the marzpet marz governor , appointed by the government of Armenia. In Yerevan, the chief executive is the mayor, elected since Within each province there are communities hamaynkner , singular hamaynk.

Each community is self-governing and consists of one or more settlements bnakavayrer , singular bnakavayr.

Settlements are classified as either towns kaghakner , singular kaghak or villages gyugher , singular gyugh.

As of [update] , Armenia includes communities, of which 49 are considered urban and are considered rural. The capital, Yerevan, also has the status of a community.

The economy relies heavily on investment and support from Armenians abroad. The republic had developed a modern industrial sector , supplying machine tools , textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics in exchange for raw materials and energy.

Armenian mines produce copper, zinc, gold, and lead. The vast majority of energy is produced with fuel imported from Russia, including gas and nuclear fuel for its one nuclear power plant ; the main domestic energy source is hydroelectric.

Small deposits of coal, gas, and petroleum exist but have not yet been developed. Access to biocapacity in Armenia is lower than world average.

In , Armenia had 0. This means they use double as much biocapacity as Armenia contains. As a result, Armenia is running a biocapacity deficit. Like other newly independent states of the former Soviet Union, Armenia's economy suffers from the breakdown of former Soviet trading patterns.

Soviet investment in and support of Armenian industry has virtually disappeared, so that few major enterprises are still able to function.

In addition, the effects of the Spitak earthquake , which killed more than 25, people and made , homeless, are still being felt.

The conflict with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh has not been resolved. Shutdown of the nuclear power plant in lead to the Armenian energy crisis of s.

Nevertheless, the government was able to make wide-ranging economic reforms that paid off in dramatically lower inflation and steady growth.

The cease-fire in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict has also helped the economy. Armenia has had strong economic growth since , building on the turnaround that began the previous year, and inflation has been negligible for the past several years.

New sectors, such as precious-stone processing and jewelry making, information and communication technology, and even tourism are beginning to supplement more traditional sectors of the economy, such as agriculture.

This steady economic progress has earned Armenia increasing support from international institutions. These loans are targeted at reducing the budget deficit and stabilising the currency; developing private businesses; energy; agriculture; food processing; transportation; the health and education sectors; and ongoing rehabilitation in the earthquake zone.

The government joined the World Trade Organization on 5 February But one of the main sources of foreign direct investments remains the Armenian diaspora, which finances major parts of the reconstruction of infrastructure and other public projects.

Being a growing democratic state, Armenia also hopes to get more financial aid from the Western World.

A liberal foreign investment law was approved in June , and a law on privatization was adopted in , as well as a program of state property privatization.

Continued progress will depend on the ability of the government to strengthen its macroeconomic management, including increasing revenue collection, improving the investment climate, and making strides against corruption.

However, unemployment, which was In the report data for of Economic Freedom of the World published by Fraser Institute Armenia ranks 27th classified most free out of economies.

In the report of Global Competitiveness Index Armenia ranks 69th out of economies. In the report data for of Doing Business Index Armenia ranks 47th with 10th rank on "starting business" sub-index.

In the "Freedom on the Net " report by Freedom House Armenia scored best in the region and was classified as a free country.

Research spending is low in Armenia, averaging 0. However, the statistical record of research expenditure is incomplete, as expenditure by privately owned business enterprises is not surveyed in Armenia.

The world average for domestic expenditure on research was 1. The country's Strategy for the Development of Science — envisions that 'by , Armenia is a country with a knowledge-based economy and is competitive within the European Research Area with its level of basic and applied research.

Based on this strategy, the accompanying Action Plan was approved by the government in June It defines the following targets: [].

Although the Strategy clearly pursues a 'science push' approach, with public research institutes serving as the key policy target, it nevertheless mentions the goal of establishing an innovation system.

However, the main driver of innovation, the business sector, is not mentioned. In between publishing the Strategy and Action Plan , the government issued a resolution in May on Science and Technology Development Priorities for — These priorities are: [].

This law is expected to play a key role in shaping the Armenian innovation system. It allows the National Academy of Sciences to extend its business activities to the commercialization of research results and the creation of spin-offs; it also makes provision for restructuring the National Academy of Sciences by combining institutes involved in closely related research areas into a single body.

Three of these new centres are particularly relevant: the Centre for Biotechnology, the Centre for Zoology and Hydro-ecology and the Centre for Organic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry.

The government is focusing its support on selected industrial sectors. More than 20 projects have been cofunded by the State Committee of Science in targeted branches: pharmaceuticals, medicine and biotechnology, agricultural mechanization and machine building, electronics, engineering, chemistry and, in particular, the sphere of information technology.

Over the past decade, the government has made an effort to encourage science—industry linkages. The Armenian information technology sector has been particularly active: a number of public—private partnerships have been established between companies and universities, in order to give students marketable skills and generate innovative ideas at the interface of science and business.

Examples are Synopsys Inc. In medieval times University of Gladzor and University of Tatev took an important role for whole Armenia.

In the —89 school year, students per 10, population were in specialized secondary or higher education, a figure slightly lower than the Soviet average.

In the early s, Armenia made substantial changes to the centralised and regimented Soviet system. In , the National Program for Educational Excellence embarked on creating an internationally competitive and academically rigorous alternative educational program the Araratian Baccalaureate for Armenian schools and increase the importance and status of the teacher's role in society.

The Ministry of Education and Science is responsible for regulation of the sector. Primary and secondary education in Armenia is free, and completion of secondary school is compulsory.

Armenian National Academy of Sciences plays important role in postgraduate education. Schooling takes 12 years in Armenia and breaks down into primary 4 years , middle 5 years and high school 3 years.

Schools engage a grade mark system. The Government also supports Armenian schools outside of Armenia. Armenia has a population of 2,, est. About 1, Armenians reside in the Armenian Quarter in the Old City of Jerusalem , a remnant of a once-larger community.

Ethnic Armenians make up Yazidis make up 1. Minorities of Poles and Caucasus Germans also exist though they are heavily Russified.

During the Soviet era , Azerbaijanis were historically the second largest population in the country forming about 2. Conversely, Armenia received a large influx of Armenian refugees from Azerbaijan, thus giving Armenia a more homogeneous character.

According to Gallup research conducted in Armenia has one of the highest migrant acceptance welcoming rates in eastern Europe. Armenian is the only official language.

The main foreign languages that Armenians know are Russian and English. Due to its Soviet past, most of the old population can speak Russian quite well.

Armenia was the first nation to adopt Christianity as a state religion , an event traditionally dated to AD The predominant religion in Armenia is Christianity.

The roots of the Armenian Church go back to the 1st century. According to tradition, the Armenian Church was founded by two of Jesus' twelve apostles — Thaddaeus and Bartholomew — who preached Christianity in Armenia between AD 40— Because of these two founding apostles, the official name of the Armenian Church is Armenian Apostolic Church.

The Armenian Evangelical Church has a very sizeable and favourable presence among the life of Armenians with over several thousand members throughout the country.

It traces its roots back to which was under patronage of the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople the aim of which was to train qualified clergy for the Armenian Apostolic Church.

Other Christian denominations practising faith based on Nicene Creed in Armenia are the Pentecostal branches of Protestant community such as the Word of Life, the Armenian Brotherhood Church , [] the Baptists which are known as of the oldest existing denominations in Armenia and were permitted by the authorities of Soviet Union, [] [] and Presbyterians.

Catholics also exist in Armenia, both Latin rite and Armenian rite Catholics. They are best known for their series of scholarly publications of ancient Armenian versions of otherwise lost ancient Greek texts.

The Armenian Catholic denomination is headquartered in Bzoummar , Lebanon. Armenia is home to a Russian community of Molokans which practice a form of Spiritual Christianity originated from the Russian Orthodox Church.

The Yazidis, who live in the western part of the country, practice Yazidism. As of [update] , the world's largest Yazidi temple is under construction in the small village of Aknalish.

There is a Jewish community in Armenia diminished to persons since independence with most emigrants leaving for Israel. There are currently two synagogues in Armenia — in the capital, Yerevan, and in the city of Sevan located near Lake Sevan.

Armenians have their own distinctive alphabet and language. The alphabet was invented in AD by Mesrop Mashtots and consists of thirty-nine letters, three of which were added during the Cilician period.

Television, magazines, and newspapers are all operated by both state-owned and for-profit corporations which depend on advertising , subscription , and other sales-related revenues.

Frequent attacks on journalists of non-state sponsored media is a serious threat to Armenia's press freedom. The number of assaults has recently declined, but the physical integrity of journalists remain at stake.

Armenian music is a mix of indigenous folk music, perhaps best-represented by Djivan Gasparyan 's well-known duduk music, as well as light pop, and extensive Christian music.

Instruments like the duduk, dhol , zurna , and kanun are commonly found in Armenian folk music. Artists such as Sayat Nova are famous due to their influence in the development of Armenian folk music.

One of the oldest types of Armenian music is the Armenian chant which is the most common kind of religious music in Armenia. Many of these chants are ancient in origin, extending to pre-Christian times, while others are relatively modern, including several composed by Saint Mesrop Mashtots, the inventor of the Armenian alphabet.

Whilst under Soviet rule, the Armenian classical music composer Aram Khatchaturian became internationally well known for his music, for various ballets and the Sabre Dance from his composition for the ballet Gayane.

The Armenian Genocide caused widespread emigration that led to the settlement of Armenians in various countries in the world. Armenians kept to their traditions and certain diasporans rose to fame with their music.

This style preserved the folk songs and dances of Western Armenia , and many artists also played the contemporary popular songs of Turkey and other Middle Eastern countries from which the Armenians emigrated.

Richard Hagopian is perhaps the most famous artist of the traditional "kef" style and the Vosbikian Band was notable in the s and s for developing their own style of "kef music" heavily influenced by the popular American Big Band Jazz of the time.

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